Oral Medicine

Oral Medicine

Oral diabetes medicines (taken by mouth) help to control blood sugar levels in people whose bodies still produce some insulin, such as some people with type 2 diabetes. Many oral diabetes medications may be used in combination with each other or with insulin to achieve the best result.

How your oral diabetes medicine help you.

Drug Name - Biguanides (Metformin)

When it is given

Metformin works by:

  • Reducing the amount of sugar release in blood .
  • Makes body respond better to insulin.
Things we should be careful about during medication

Heartburn, Stomach pain, Nausea or vomiting, Bloating, Flatulence (gas), Diarrhoea, Constipation, Weight loss, Headache, Unpleasant metallic taste in mouth.

Drug Name - Sulfonylureas (Glipizide, Glimepride, Glyburide)

When it is given
  • Lower blood glucose by increasing the amount of insulin your pancreas makes.
Things we should be careful about during medication

Low blood sugar symptoms like:

Sweating, Shaking, Feeling hungry, Feeling anxious, Feeling confused.

Drug Name - DPP-4 inhibitors (Sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, alogliptin

When it is given
  • Lower blood sugar levels by increasing insulin release from the pancreas after a meal.
Things we should be careful about during medication

Gastrointestinal problems – including nausea, diarrhoea and stomach pain, Flu-like symptoms – headache, runny nose, sore throat, Skin reactions – painful skin followed by a red or purple rash, Joint pain. , Pancreatitis.

Drug Name - SGLT2 inhibitors (Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin)

When it is given
  • Work on the kidneys to remove extra sugar from the body.
  • Lower blood sugar by increasing the excretion of sugar in the urine.
Things we should be careful about during medication

Genital yeast infections, Flu-like symptoms, Dehydration, Bone fracture or amputation (some medicines in this class).

Drug Name - Meglitinides (Repaglinide, Nateglinide )

When it is given
  • They work to lower blood sugar levels, similar to the sulfonylureas, but are quicker.
Things we should be careful about during medication

Weight gain, Diarrhoea, Nausea, Joint pain, Back pain, Headache, Runny or stuffy nose, Sneezing, Cough , Cold or flu symptoms, Dizziness, Blurred vision

Drug Name - Thiazolidinediones (Pioglitozone, Rosiglitazone.)

When it is given
  • Lowers blood sugar levels by improving the way insulin works by allowing more glucose to enter into muscles, fat, and the liver.
Things we should be careful about during medication

Weight gain, Swelling of the feet and ankles, Fluid retention at the back of the eyes (macular oedema) , Heart problems from swelling of the feet and ankles, Liver failure, Anaemia, Bone fractures, Development certain types of cancer (like bladder cancer.

Drug Name - Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (Acarbose, Miglitol)

When it is given

Work by:

  • Delaying glucose absorption in the small intestine.
  • Slow down the digestion of some starches.
Things we should be careful about during medication

Flatulence (gas), Diarrhoea, Abdominal pain

Oral OR Injectables

Drug Name - GLP-1 receptor agonists (Liraglutide, dulaglutide, semaglutide injections)

When it is given
  • Increase insulin release in response to a meal and slow digestion.
  • They promote loss of appetite and a sense of feeling full.
Things we should be careful about during medication
  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
  • Inflammation of the pancrea and gall bladder disease rarely.

This guide provides general information about the different medications for diabetes. But always take your medicine exactly as your doctor prescribes it. This information is just to help you know your medicines better.

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